Alpha Lipoic Acid: Fat and Water Soluble; A Major Player in mTBI/Concussion 

Because antioxidants modulate the pathophysiology of oxidative stress/free radical damage and chronic inflammation they play a major role in preventing and halting neurodegeneration in TBI.

Alpha lipoic acid has two roles as it is a powerful antioxidant and an important player in producing cellular energy.

Alpha Lipoic Acid is unique as an antioxidant, it is both water- and fat-soluble.  It also regenerates, extends and enhances the effect of other antioxidants, defending the body against free radical damage. Metabolically, alpha lipoic acid is an important coenzyme in the production of cellular energy (ATP).  Image from:

Why Ketones or a Ketogenic Diet for Concussion 

Glucose is the usual source of energy for neurons (type of brain cells).

•When oxidative, excitotoxic and inflammatory conditions are present (which is what happens in a concussion) nerve cells can develop dysfunction of glucose transport into cells and essentially cells will then starve, be unable to regulate the influx of ions that lead to the swelling of neurons and potentially die.

•Neurons can use glucose or ketones even though they prefer glucose if available.

•Ketones can be used as an alternative fuel for neurons that cannot effectively transport glucose.

•Presence of ketone in circulation, even at low levels increases cerebral blood flow by as much as 40%

•Ketones used within mitochondria to drive the chain reaction that produces ATP (the energy compound of all cells)

•Coconut oil as a source of ketones or ketones created by a very high fat super low carbohydrate diet called a Ketogenic diet (popularized by John Hopkins Hospital for the treatment of seizures) can reduce the generation of free radicals, increase production of endogenous glutathione (a major antioxidant) and act as an anti-inflammatory.